By Ibrahim Shah Editor of Burma Times 14 January 2014
Burma Times: Don’t confuse Rohingya Muslim with Rakhine Muslim!
Another horrible step to tactfully operate to implement the remained genocidal procedures against Rohingya—method 2014: de-Rohingya by policy of Rakhinized Muslim.
“Politically, the forced registration of Rohingya Muslim as Rakhine Muslim by Burmese genocidal government led by President Thein Sein for upcoming national census that would be carried out from 30 March to 10 April is another horrible genocidal step to utterly eradicate Rohingya. The main intention behind the forced Rakhinized Muslim instead of Rohingya Muslim is nothing except de-Rohingya Muslim”
It is very significantly important to know differentially the incomparable difference between “ethnicity or ethnic group and ethno-religious group”. “Ethnicity or ethnic group” is a specific term to identify the ancestral background of each community who are eligible to belong an ethnicity—particular language, distinct culture, racial dress, populous territory. To declare or demand a specific ethnicity for a community, they must be eligible as mentioned above. An ethno-religious group is an ethnic group of people whose members are also unified by a common religious background; however, Ethno-religious communities define their ethnic identity neither exclusively by ancestral heritage nor simply by religious affiliation, but often through a combination of both. Accordingly, it is too inevitable for humanity at large to achieve proper knowledge to differentiate right or wrong differentially to establish true facts.
History witnessed that the Rohingya is an ethnic group genealogically, ethnically and geographically. Let me introduce who are Rohingya and who reached first in Rakhine (Arakan was a sovereign kingdom until 1784).
Myanmar Census trainer
Amongst the numerous analysis of world renowned analyst on the native people of Rakhine(Arakan),the most concrete historical evidence emerged from the research of European traveler Dr. Francis Buchanan (1762-1829 AD).In his major work “A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire” published in 1799, in the fifth volume of Asiatic Researches, is the book which provides one of the first major Western surveys of the languages of Burma. In his book, Arakan was mentioned “Reng, Roung, Rossawn, Russawn, Rung. It also stated that “the native Mugs of Arakan called themselves ‘Yakin’, which name is also commonly given to them by the Burmese. The people of Pegu are named ‘Taling’. By the Bengal Hindus, at least by such of them as have been settled in Arakan, the country is called Rossawn. The Mahammedans who have long settled at Arakan call the country ‘Rovingaw’ and called themselves ‘Rohinga’ or native of Arakan. The Persians called it ‘Rkon’.”
Some words from the book Asiatic Researches volume the fifth by Dr.Francis Buchanan that was published in 1799:
The current spoken language of the oldest native people of Arakan or Rohingya people in 2013:
Let’s compare thoroughly between the above two dialectical charts to examine which dialect is exactly similar to prove the ethnicity Rohingya.
In these two charts, we found evidently that only one language is dialectically similar and it belongs to only Rohingya.
The language of the stone inscription of Ananda Chandra at the end of 8th century is exactly similar to neither the intruder Burman nor their settler Rakhine, except, the Rohingya language by 70 percent.
Is there any witness or evidence of the official language of any state declared with either alien language or the mother tongue of the majority of that state? Yes, it is only with mother tongue of the oldest native people. I.e. in Malaysia the official language is either Burmese or Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Melayu, in USA, is it either US English or Chinese: US English, in Middle east, is it Arabic or Urdu: Arabic,etc.
Undoubtedly, we find here the foremost indigenous people of Arakan is only the Rohingya due to the official language of Chandra dynasty is similar to only Rohingya by 70 percent according to the stone inscription of Ananda Chandra at the end of 8th century.
Rohingya community have been living populously in western part of Rathedaung, Buthidaung and Maungdaw and scattered in rest parts throughout Burma.
The former name of Arakan was Rohang and its people were called Rohingya. The meaning of Rohingya is the people of Rohang. (Rohang+ya=Rohingya= the people of the land Rohang)
Apparently, it is already proved that Rohingya is a distinguished ethnic group both ethnically and geographically.
Rakhine extremist fire Rohingya Houses
Genealogically Rohingya are Indo-Aryan descendants. Genetically they are an ethnic mix of Bengalis, Indians, Moghuls, Pathans, Arabs, Persians, Turks, Moors and central Asians. They are in South Asian appearance in contrast to Southeast Asian, and have developed a separate culture and a mixed language, which is absolutely unique to the region, reflecting this geographic reality and trueness of Arakan.
Some official brief accounts of Rohingya—broadcasting from radio program in the Rohingya language was relayed three times a week from the indigenous language programme of the official Burma Broadcasting Service in Rangoon, from 15 May 1961 to 30 October 1965. Myanma EncyclopediaVol.9, page 89-90, published in 1964, concludes that population of 500,000 living in Mayu Frontier of Northern Arakan State 75% is Rohingya. “The majority people live in Buthidaung, Maungdaw and Rathedaung Townships are ethnic Rohingya and the minorities are Rakhine, Daingnet, Mro and Khami” wrote in Tatmataw Khit Yay journal Vol.12, No.6 printed on 18 July 1961 and Vol. 12, No.9 printed on 8 August 1961.
“The people living in Buthidaung and Maungdaw Townships are Rohingya, ethnic of Burma” said Burma’s firstdemocratically elected prime minister U Nu in a public speech on 25 September 1954 at 8 pm. “The Rohingya has the equal status of nationality with Kachin, Kayah, Karen, Mon, Rakhine and Shan” said the prime minister and minister for defense U Ba Swe at public gatherings in Buthidaung and Maungdaw Townships on 3 and 4 November 1959.
“The people living in Mayu Frontier is ethnic Rohingya” included in the announcement of Frontiers Administration office under Prime Minister Office on 20 November 1961. Mayu Frontier is composed of Buthidaung, Maungdaw and Rathedaung Townships.
The existence of Rohingya in Arakan or Rakhine is witnessed again according to the first year text book of Burmese government university, Yangon University of distance education printed on 25th July 2012. It is stated in Chapter 4, Cultural Bases, page number 94, in northern Rakhine state close to the border with Bangladesh at Butheetaung and Maungdaw townships are where the Rohingyas and Chittagarians live.
Reiteratively, the existence of Rohingya in western part of Burma border with Bangladesh at Buthetaung and Maungdaw townships is witnessed by Burmese government appointed prominent scholars of geography department and historians. As well as, Burmese domestic researchers and international renowned researchers expressed same views on Rohingya existence in Arakan.
Since 1784, Arakan became a part of Myanmar/Burma and in 1974, the Junta Ne Win politically changed the Arakan state as Rakhine state to discriminate Rohingya and other ethnic Muslims and to establish Muslim free-zone.
Afterwards, the chain of Burmese dictator enacted various discriminatory policies against Rohingya and demographically changed the Rakhine state setting up many new Model villages in Rohingya quarters.
The ethno-religious group Rakhine Muslim is not an ethnic group name based on ethnic group. The term Rakhine Muslim became after combination of two words Rakhine and Muslim. Each word is radically difference. The radically difference words Rakhine and Muslim cannot be combined to ethnically prescribe a particular ethnicity.
Generally, Rakhine belongs to an ethnic group and Muslim belongs to a religion. Therefore, it is totally chaotic to declare the ethnic group of a community with ethno-religious group omitting the fundamental ancestral background of that community.
Eventually, it is already strictly proved that the ethnic group and ethno-religious group are not similar group. Thus, it is the obligatory duty of the people who have an officially recognized ethnicity to strongly avoid confusional or ignorable mistakes between the ethnicity and ethno-religious group under any circumstances.
The forced registration of Rohingya Muslim as Rakhine Muslim by Burmese regime led by President Thein Sein is a major crime and absolutely against the universal declaration of human rights and it is the prime responsibility of every ethnic nationalities of Burma and UN to denounce and prevent the de-Rohingya Muslim policy of Burmese government as soon as possible.
Rohingya is Rohingya. Rohingya is an ethnically derived name since 7th century AD. Otherwise, Rohingya never accept Rakhine Muslim as Rakhine Muslim belongs to only Rakhine ethnicity whose religious faith is Islam. Rohingya is an officially recognized ethnic group. The ethnic Rohingya is first eligibly entitled by their forefathers who settled themselves in Arakan since 7th century AD and geographically approved, historically and ethnically witnessed and officially recognized by first parliamentarian government of union of Burma.